Reference sources.

- Xylitol and tooth-decay studies referenced on this site.

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Guideline on Xylitol Use in Caries Prevention 2011.

Bentley, E. et al. Oral hygiene: Fluoride ingestion from toothpaste by young children. British Dental Journal. Vol. 186. May 1999.

Burt, B. et al. The use of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control. J. Am. Dental Assoc. Vol. 137. February 2006.

Edgar, W. Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries--a review. British Dental J. Vol. 184, No. 1. 1998.

Lif Holgerson, P. et al. Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products. Caries Research. Vol. 40, No. 5. 2006.

Hujoel, P. et al. The Optimum Time to Initiate habitual Xylitol Gum-chewing for obtaining long-term Caries Prevention. J. Dental Research. Vol. 78, No. 3. March 1999.

Isokangas, P. et al. Occurrence of Dental Decay in Children after Maternal Consumption of Xylitol Chewing Gum, a Follow-up from 0 to 5 Years of Age. J. Dental Research. Vol 79, No. 11. 2000.

Isotupa, K. et al. Effect of polyol gums on dental plaque in orthodontic patients. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. Vol 107, No. 5. 1995.

Jannesson, L. et al. Effect of a triclosan-containing toothpaste supplemented with 10% xylitol on mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque. A 6-month clinical study. Caries Research. Vol. 36, No. 1. January 2002.

Makinen, K. The Rocky Road of Xylitol to its Clinical Application. J. Dental Research. Vol. 79, No. 6. 2000.

Makinen, K. et al. Six-month polyol chewing-gum programme in kindergarten-age children: a feasibility study focusing on mutans streptococci and dental plaque. Int. Dent. J. Vol. 55, No. 2. April 2005.

Makinen, K. et al. Xylitol Chewing Gums and Caries Rates: A 40-month Cohort Study. J. Dental Research. Vol. 74, No. 12. 1995.

Makinen, K. Long-term tolerance of healthy human subjects to high amounts of xylitol and fructose: general and biochemical findings. Int Z Vitam Ernahrungsforsch Beih. Vol. 15. 1976.

Makinen, K. et al.A descriptive report of the effects of a 16-month xylitol chewing-gum programme subsequent to a 40-month sucrose gum programme. Caries Research. Vol. 32, No. 2. 1998.

Makinen, K. et al.Thirty-nine-month xylitol chewing-gum programme in initially 8-year-old school children: a feasibility study focusing on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Int. Dent. J. Vol. 58, No. 1. 2008.

Miake, Y. Remineralization effects of xylitol on demineralized enamel. J. Electron Microsc. Vol. 52, No. 5. 2003

Milgrom, P. et al. Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum. J. Dental Research. Vol. 85, No. 2. 2006.

Milgrom, P. et al. Developing Public Health Interventions with Xylitol for the US and US-Associated Territories and States. Suom Hammaslaakarilehti. Vol. 13, No. 10-11. May 2006.

Richter, P. Army's 'Look for Xylitol First' program. Dental Assistant. Vol 73, No.2. March-April 2004.

Roberts, M. et al. How xylitol-containing products affect cariogenic bacteria. J. Am. Dental Assoc. Vol. 133, No. 4. 2002.

Soderling, E. et al. Influence of Maternal Xylitol Consumption on Acquisition of Mutans Steptococci by Infants. J. Dental Research. Vol. 79, No. 3. 2000.

Soderling, E. et al. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on mother-child transmission of mutans streptococci: 6-year follow-up. Caries Research. Vol. 35, No. 3. 2001.

Trahan, L. et al. Emergence of Multiple Xylitol-resistant Mutants from Human isolates of Mutans Streptococci during Growth on Dietary Sugars in the Presence of Xylitol. J. Dental Research. Vol. 75, No. 11. 1996.

Vernacchio, L. et al. Tolerability of Oral Xylitol Solution in Young Children: Implications for Otitis Media Prophylaxis. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. Vol. 71, No. 1 . January 2007.


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